Diabetes or blood Sugar

Diabetes Mellitus is a generally known as “blood sugar” or referred as a group of metabolic diseases in which either pancreas not produced enough insulin that our body required or the cells of our body does not work or responds according to the insulin produced.

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body produces too little insulin or can’t use available insulin efficiently. Insulin is a hormone vital to helping the body use digested food for growth and energy.

Diabetes Mellifluous is a metabolic disorder characterized by hypoglycemic and result form defective insulin production, secretion or utilization.

Hypoglycemia is due to total or partial insulin deficiency or insensitivity of the cells to insulin.  characterized by disorders in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, protein, as well as changes in the structure and function of blood vessels.


  1. Genetic factors
  • Defecting in B cells
  • Abnormal function of B cells
  1. Environmental factors
  2. Pancreatic Factors
  • Growth hormone
  • Cushing Syndrome
  • Acromagally
  1. Defect in insulin production
  2. Abnormal function in insulin


1.  Type 1 ( insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus  IDDM )

2.  Type 2 (Non insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus  NIDDM) may result from a  partial deficiency of insulin production and an insensitivity of the cells to Usually occurs in obese adults over 40 .Diabetes associated with other conditions or syndromes.

Acute Reaction

  1. Insulin reaction: Hypoglycemia
  2. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
  3. Lactic acidosis
  4. Acute Circulatory failure
  5. Nonketotic come (NK) hyperosmolar diabetic coma

Microvascular complications

  1. a) Nephropathy
  2. b) Peripheral neuropathy
  3. c) Autonomic neuropathy (motion weakness,postural)

Macrovascular complication

  1. a) Cerebral Circulation-stroke, TIA
  2. b) Coronary circulation – MI
  3. c) Peripheral Circulation- ischemia, Claudication

Diagnostic Procedure

  1. a) Fasting Blood glucose( FBS)
  2. b) Oral Glucose tolerance Test (OGTT)
  3. c) Glycosylated Hemoglobin( HbA1c)


  1. a) Type | : Insulin exercise.
  2. b) Type ||: Ideally managed by diet exercise, May need oral hypoglycemic or insulin nursing implications.

Nursing Orientation

Administer insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents as ordered;monitor for hypoglycemic,especially during period of drug’s peak action.

  1. Observe for signs of hypo/hypoglycemia.
  2. Provide special diet as prescribed.
  3. Monitor urine and finger sticks blood glucose levels.
  4. Provide meticulous skin care and prevent injury.
  5. Maintaining Weight daily.
  6. Provide emotional support,assist client in adapting to change life style and body image.

7.Observe for chronic complication and plan care accordingly.

Promote teaching and discharge planing concerning:

  1. a) Disease process
  2. b) Diet emphasize importance of regularity of meals

Urine testing

  1. a) Perform test before meals and at bedtime

General care

  1. a) Perform good oral hygiene and have dental exams.
  2. b) Have regulaceye exams.
  3. c) Do not omit insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents since infection causes increased blood sugar.
  4. d) Monitor urine or blood glucose levels and urine ketones

Foot care

* Wash and dry feet regularly.

* Cut toenails.

* Use properly fitting shoes.

*never go bare feet

* Inspect feet daily and notify physician if any cuts blister break in skin occur.


Consult a Doctor

Food planner for Diabetes patients

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